Gamma irradiation effect on embryogenic callus growth of citrus reticulata cv. limau madu
Abstract : Induced mutagenesis using gamma ray has been proven applicable to improve varieties of many genotypes of crop species. The effects of Co gamma ray dosage on growth and callus induction of nucellus segments of Citrus reticulata cv. limau madu were investigated. The nucelli were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 Gy, followed by embryogenic callus (EC) induction on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 500 mg L malt extract (ME), 146 mM sucrose, 0.8% (w/v) agar and 13.3 μM benzyl amino purine (BAP). Survival, callus type and colour, degree of callus formation, time of callus formation and total fresh weight of callus varied among the treatments. All untreated explants (controls) survived and produced friable EC in the 2nd or 3rd week of culture, whereas the irradiated nucelli showed delayed response. EC derived from the nucelli irradiated at 10, 20 and 40 Gy appeared in the 3rd week of culture, whereas EC from the 60 and 80 Gy doses appeared in the 4th week. Exposure to higher doses (100 and 120 Gy) completely suppressed callus formation. After 35 days of culture, an average of 697 and 660 mg of EC were harvested from the nucelli irradiated at 10 and 20 Gy, respectively, which was higher than those at 40 Gy (441 mg), 60 Gy (436 mg) and 80 Gy (380 mg). EC were initiated and proliferated and subsequently regenerated into plantlets. DNA of plantlets from the 20, 40 and 60 Gy exposure were individually amplified and compared to the control for early detection of mutagenesis using retrotransposon, inter simple sequence repeat and markers related to seedlessness. No variants were observed from the plantlets produced.
Keywords : Embryogenic callus,Gamma-rays,LD50,Limau madu,Nucellus
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